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Faith in Christ Shown by Loyalty to the Pope
There are four logical features in this passage from the Gospel of Matthew, each one of which deserves not a few minutes, but months of prayerful meditation. First, Peter's profession of faith in Christ; then, Christ's acceptance of this profession; third, Christ's promise to make Peter the visible foundation of His Church; and finally, the awesome description of the power of papal authority.
The Papacy Unites the Catholic Church
As Bishops of Rome, the Popes have succeeded St. Peter as visible heads of the Church on earth. From Peter on, over the centuries, the Bishops of Rome have been thus recognized by all believing Catholics. The Pope is therefore called the Vicar of Christ because he has received from the Divine Master delegated authority over all the People of God.
The Roman Primary and the Spiritual Life
Until recent years, we would hardly have written on a subject like "The Roman Primacy and the Spiritual Life." But much has happened to call for some inquiry into the relationship between faith in the papal primacy and growth in the spiritual life. We now know, more clearly than ever before, that not only progress in the spiritual life depends on people's faith in the supreme authority of the Bishop of Rome. The very survival of Christian spirituality is at stake.
An Analysis of Anglican Concepts of the Papal Magisterium from the First Through the Tenth Lambeth Conference:
Table of Contents and Introduction

The following manuscript is a Ph.D. dissertation written during the years 1969-1971 under the direction of Father John A. Hardon, S.J.  It deals with scriptural, patristic and conciliar evidence supporting the Roman Catholic doctrine of papal primacy. Of all the doctrines that divide non-Catholic Christians from the Roman Catholic Church, it is the question of papal primacy which occupies first place. Without a doubt it is the chief stumbling block to unity with that Church which maintains the Bishop of Rome is the successor to St. Peter, the chief of the Apostles. That is to say, that the Bishop of Rome enjoys that primacy over the Church granted by Jesus to St. Peter and to his successors, the Bishops of Rome.
An Analysis of Anglican Concepts of the Papal Magisterium from the First Through the Tenth Lambeth Conference:
Chapter I - The Oxford Challenge (1867 – 1888)

The roots of modern Anglican attitudes towards the papal magisterium are largely found in the Oxford Movement of the nineteenth century (1833-1845). The movement’s adherents and successors, often referred to as Anglo-Catholics or High Churchmen, displayed a great reverence for the first eleven centuries of Christianity. They noted that, unlike the later centuries, the Church during this period was undivided. Consequently, its teachings were kept in their integrity and were spoken with one voice, especially by means of the universal episcopate when gathered in ecumenical councils.
An Analysis of Anglican Concepts of the Papal Magisterium from the First Through the Tenth Lambeth Conference:
Chapter II: Primacy of Honor (1888 to 1908)

The affirmation of the historical episcopate in the Third Lambeth Conference symbolized an appreciation of episcopal authority generally lacking in Anglicanism before the nineteenth century. Earlier, the Crown was normally looked upon as ultimate authority in ecclesiastical affairs.
An Analysis of Anglican Concepts of the Papal Magisterium from the First Through the Tenth Lambeth Conference:
Chapter III: Petrine Primacy of Authority (1908 to 1930)

This chapter will examine Anglican scholarship written between 1908 and 1930. Also examined will be statements of the Sixth (1920) and the Seventh (1930) Lambeth Conferences. Generally speaking, we will see that both scholars and the councils continued to express goodwill towards the Church of Rome. Although this did not necessarily imply a change of attitude towards the papacy itself. With respect to the latter, the concept of a primacy of honor, with one notable exception, continued to prevail. With regard to the Petrine office also, most scholars continued to stress an honorific primacy. However, towards the end of the period under consideration, one author described what appeared to be an authoritative primacy and two explicitly perceived such a primacy.
An Analysis of Anglican Concepts of the Papal Magisterium from the First Through the Tenth Lambeth Conference:
Chapter IV: The Papal Magisterium: Traditional and Developed Views (1930 to 1948)

In this chapter, we will analyze Anglican works dealing with the papacy written between 1930 and 1948. One of these is especially important for the purpose of our study since its author Trevor Jalland dismissed many of the earlier held Anglican concepts of the papal magisterium. Attention will also be paid in the chapter to documents issued by the Eighth Lambeth Conference which, due to the intervention of World War II, was not held until 1948.
An Analysis of Anglican Concepts of the Papal Magisterium from the First Through the Tenth Lambeth Conference:
Chapter V: Papacy and Episcopacy: A Rapprochement? (1948-1968)

Views of papal authority paralleling those held by Trevor Jalland were also present during the years 1948-1968. Therefore, we will see in this chapter a continuation of the trend in Anglican scholarship in which the papacy was described in terms more closely resembling the doctrine of the papacy held by Roman Catholicism. We will also see a remarkable contrast between the attitudes of the Ninth (1958) and Tenth (1968) Lambeth Conferences towards the papacy. Unlike the former, the 1968 Conference, influenced by the Vatican II doctrine of episcopal collegiality, proposed a re-examination of the question of papal authority by all concerned with the unity of the Body of Christ.
An Analysis of Anglican Concepts of the Papal Magisterium from the First Through the Tenth Lambeth Conference:
Chapter VI: Comprehensive Analysis

In the preceding chapters, we have analyzed on a chronological basis Anglican concepts relating to the papal magisterium which were presented by both individual scholars and individual Lambeth Conferences. Also within the framework of the period covered by each chapter, we have noted some of the interrelationships of these concepts. But so far no attempt has been made to evaluate the concepts, and their various interrelationships, in their total perspective. Nor has any attempt been made to evaluate their implications with respect to the question of Anglican-Roman Catholic unity. Therefore, it is with these ends in mind that the present chapter is written.
An Analysis of Anglican Concepts of the Papal Magisterium from the First Through the Tenth Lambeth Conference:
Summary and Conclusions / Bibliography

Within our study, we have seen that the doctrine of the magisterial primacy of the papacy, reiterated and developed by Vatican I in 1870, challenged the Anglo-Catholic belief in the magisterial primacy of the episcopal college. Consequently, many Anglo-Catholics felt obliged to demonstrate the shortcomings of the Roman Catholic position by an appeal to Scripture and to ancient tradition.
An Analysis of Anglican Concepts of the Papal Magisterium from the First Through the Tenth Lambeth Conference:
Appendix I: Abstract

The Vatican I teaching relating to the primacy of the papal magisterium was, for the most part, unfavorably received in the Anglican Communion during the hundred years following its promulgation. This attitude was found, for example, in the episcopal Lambeth Conferences and in Anglican scholarship, both of which served to strengthen further resistance to the council’s teaching.
The Primacy of Peter
Rather surprisingly perhaps, St. Ignatius makes a great deal of the appearances of Christ after the resurrection. He recounts no less than fourteen appearances.…Not coincidentally, the last gospel has a whole last chapter devoted to Christ’s appearing to Peter and conferring on him the primacy.
Christ Makes Peter Visible Head of the Church
The second marvelous blessing that the Risen Christ gave us was the institution of the Papal Primacy. We don’t often use the expression, papal primacy. Just a word of preliminary explanation, by this we mean that, the Bishops of Rome, as successors of St. Peter possess the fullness and supremacy of authority in teaching, in law-giving and in sanctification, in the Church founded by Christ.
The Church and Apostolic Authority
This will be the so far longest sustained theme of the retreat on the Church. We have seen how the Israel of old was already the Church in embryo. With the coming of Christ, He began forming the Church when He called the apostles. We saw that essential to the Catholic understanding of the Church is that within the Church are those originally ordained by Christ and ever since administering the sacraments. Especially the five we identified in Christ’s name. Without the priesthood there is no (I don’t say no Catholic Church), there is no Church. The only church that the Son of God founded was the one in which having chosen twelve men He conferred on them a share in His own divine powers.
Sacrament and Papal Teaching Authority
We have seen at some length how the first major crisis on papal authority arose with the rise of Protestantism. We might almost say that, at the heart of Protestantism, is an organized protest against the the teaching authority of the Bishop of Rome.
Cyprian Teaches Papal Primacy
Simply stated, Cyprian teaches two things: 1) although Christ wanted His Church to be united, dissension has entered through the wiles of the evil spirit; 2) unity is to be restored by submission to the authority of the pope. Cyprian explains that we must be on our guard not only against persecution from outside the Church. Our greatest danger is from the devil, sowing seeds of discord within the Church. In Cyprians’ vocabulary, the evil spirit is the Enemy.





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